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Judith Korth



TOI-1442 b and TOI-2445 b: Two potentially rocky ultra-short period planets around M dwarfs


  • G. Morello
  • J. Korth
  • M. Timmermans

Summary, in English

Context. Exoplanets with orbital periods of less than one day are known as ultra-short period (USP) planets. They are relatively rare products of planetary formation and evolution processes, but especially favourable for characterisation with current planet detection methods. At the time of writing, 125 USP planets have already been confirmed. Aims. Our aim is to validate the planetary nature of two new transiting planet candidates around M dwarfs announced by the NASA Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), registered as TESS Objects of Interest (TOIs) TOI-1442.01 and TOI-2445.01. Methods. We used TESS data, ground-based photometric light curves, and Subaru/IRD spectrograph radial velocity (RV) measurements to validate both planetary candidates and to establish their physical properties. Results. TOI-1442 b is a validated exoplanet with an orbital period of P = 0.4090682 ± 0.0000004 day, a radius of Rp = 1.15 ± 0.06 R☉, and equilibrium temperature of Tp,eq = 1357+−4942 K. TOI-2445 b is also validated with an orbital period of P = 0.3711286 ± 0.0000004 day, a radius of Rp = 1.33 ± 0.09 R☉, and equilibrium temperature of Tp,eq = 1330+−6156 K. Their physical properties align with current empirical trends and formation theories of USP planets. Based on the RV measurements, we set 3σ upper mass limits of 8 M☉ and 20 M☉, thus confirming the non-stellar, sub-Jovian nature of both transiting objects. More RV measurements will be needed to constrain the planetary masses and mean densities, and the predicted presence of outer planetary companions. These targets extend the small sample of USP planets orbiting around M dwarfs up to 21 members. They are also among the 20 most suitable terrestrial planets for atmospheric characterisation via secondary eclipse with the James Webb Space Telescope, according to a widespread emission spectroscopy metric. © The Authors 2023.


  • Astrophysics
  • Lund Observatory - Has been reorganised

Publishing year





Astronomy and Astrophysics



Document type

Journal article


EDP Sciences


  • Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology


  • methods: observational
  • planetary systems
  • planets and satellites: individual: TOI-1442 b
  • planets and satellites: individual: TOI-2445 b
  • techniques: photometric
  • techniques: spectroscopic
  • Emission spectroscopy
  • Extrasolar planets
  • NASA
  • Orbits
  • Photometry
  • Physical properties
  • Space telescopes
  • Exo-planets
  • Methods:observational
  • Planet and satellite: individual: TESS object of interest-1442 b
  • Planet and satellite: individual: TESS object of interest-2445 b
  • Planetary system
  • Planets and satellites: individual
  • Short periods
  • Techniques: photometric
  • Techniques: spectroscopic
  • Satellites




  • ISSN: 0004-6361