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Colin Carlile, researcher at Lund Observatory. Photo.

Colin Carlile

Guest researcher

Colin Carlile, researcher at Lund Observatory. Photo.

The European Spallation Source neutrino super-beam conceptual design report


  • A. Alekou
  • A. Burgman
  • C. J. Carlile
  • J. Cederkall
  • P. Christiansen
  • M. Collins
  • H. Danared
  • M. Dracos
  • T. Ekelöf
  • M. Eshraqi
  • B. Folsom
  • M. Lindroos
  • C. Marrelli
  • J. Park
  • Y. Zou

Summary, in English

A design study, named ESSνSB
for European Spallation Source neutrino Super Beam, has been carried
out during the years 2018–2022 of how the 5 MW proton linear accelerator
of the European Spallation Source under construction in Lund, Sweden,
can be used to produce the world’s most intense long-baseline neutrino
beam. The high beam intensity will allow for measuring the neutrino
oscillations near the second oscillation maximum at which the CP
violation signal is close to three times higher than at the first
maximum, where other experiments measure. This will enable CP violation
discovery in the leptonic sector for a wider range of values of the CP
violating phase δCP and, in particular, a higher precision measurement of δCP.
The present Conceptual Design Report describes the results of the
design study of the required upgrade of the ESS linac, of the
accumulator ring used to compress the linac pulses from 2.86 ms to
1.2 μs, and of the target station, where the 5 MW proton beam is used to
produce the intense neutrino beam. It also presents the design of the
near detector, which is used to monitor the neutrino beam as well as to
measure neutrino cross sections, and of the large underground far
detector located 360 km from ESS, where the magnitude of the oscillation
appearance of νe from νμ is measured. The physics performance of the ESSνSB
research facility has been evaluated demonstrating that after 10 years
of data-taking, leptonic CP violation can be detected with more than 5
standard deviation significance over 70% of the range of values that the
CP violation phase angle δCP can take and that δCP can be measured with a standard error less than 8° irrespective of the measured value of δCP. These results demonstrate the uniquely high physics performance of the proposed ESSνSB research facility.


  • Nuclear physics
  • Particle and nuclear physics
  • LTH Profile Area: The Energy Transition
  • Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Publishing year







European Physical Journal: Special Topics





Document type

Journal article




  • Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
  • Subatomic Physics




  • ISSN: 1951-6401