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Thomas Bensby. Profile photo.

Thomas Bensby

Senior lecturer

Thomas Bensby. Profile photo.

The origin and evolution of the odd-Z iron-peak elements Sc, V, Mn, and Co


  • Chiara Battistini
  • Thomas Bensby

Summary, in English

Context. Elements heavier than Li are produced in the interiors of stars. However, for many elements the exact production sites and the timescales on which they are dispersed into the interstellar medium are unknown. Having a clear picture on the origins of the elements is important for our ability to trace and understand the formation and chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its stellar populations.

Aims. The aim of this study is to investigate the origin and evolution of Sc, V, Mn, and Co for a homogeneous and statistically significant sample of stars probing the different populations of the Milky Way, in particular the thin and thick disks. Methods. Using high-resolution spectra obtained with the MIKE, FEROS, SOFIN, FIES, UVES, and HARPS spectrographs, we determine Sc, V, Mn, and Co abundances for a large sample of F and G dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. The method is based on spectral synthesis and using one-dimensional, plane-parallel, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model stellar atmospheres calculated with the MARCS 2012 code. The non-LTE (NLTE) corrections from the literature were applied to Mn and Co.

Results. We find that the abundance trends derived for Sc (594 stars), V (466 stars), and Co (567 stars) are very similar to what has been observed for the α-elements in the thin and thick disks. On the contrary, Mn (569 stars) is generally underabundant relative to the Sun (i.e., [Mn/Fe] < 0) for [Fe/H] < 0. In addition, for Mn, when NLTE corrections are applied, the trend changes and is almost flat over the entire metallicity range of the stars in our sample (−2 < [Fe/H] < +0.4). The [Sc/Fe]-[Fe/H] abundance trends show a small separation between the thin and thick disks, while for V and Co they completely overlap. For Mn there is a small difference in [Mn/Fe], but only when NLTE corrections are used. Comparisons with Ti as a reference element show flat trends for all the elements except for Mn that show well separated [Mn/Ti]-[Ti/H] trends for the thin and thick disks.

Conclusions. The elements Sc and V present trends compatible with production from type II supernovae (SNII) events. In addition, Sc clearly shows a metallicity dependence for [Fe/H] < −1. Instead, Mn is produced in SNII events for [Fe/H] < −0.4 and then type Ia supernovae start to produce Mn. Finally, Co appears to be produced mainly in SNII with suggestion of enrichment from hypernovae at low metallicities.


  • Lund Observatory - Has been reorganised

Publishing year





Astronomy & Astrophysics



Document type

Journal article


EDP Sciences


  • Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology


  • stars: abundances
  • stars: solar-type
  • Galaxy: disk
  • Galaxy: evolution
  • solar neighbourhood




  • ISSN: 0004-6361