TOI-1670 b and c : An Inner Sub-Neptune with an Outer Warm Jupiter Unlikely to Have Originated from High-eccentricity Migration
Summary, in English
We report the discovery of two transiting planets around the bright (V = 9.9 mag) main-sequence F7 star TOI-1670 by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. TOI-1670 b is a sub-Neptune ( Rb=2.06-0.15+0.19 R) on a 10.9 day orbit, and TOI-1670 c is a warm Jupiter ( Rc=0.987-0.025+0.025 R Jup) on a 40.7 day orbit. Using radial velocity observations gathered with the Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith telescope and HARPS-N on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, we find a planet mass of Mc=0.63-0.08+0.09 M Jup for the outer warm Jupiter, implying a mean density of ρc=0.81-0.11+0.13 g cm-3. The inner sub-Neptune is undetected in our radial velocity data (M b < 0.13 M Jup at the 99% confidence level). Multiplanet systems like TOI-1670 hosting an outer warm Jupiter on a nearly circular orbit ( ec=0.09-0.04+0.05 ) and one or more inner coplanar planets are more consistent with "gentle"formation mechanisms such as disk migration or in situ formation rather than high-eccentricity migration. Of the 11 known systems with a warm Jupiter and a smaller inner companion, eight (73%) are near a low-order mean-motion resonance, which can be a signature of migration. TOI-1670 joins two other systems (27% of this subsample) with period commensurabilities greater than 3, a common feature of in situ formation or halted inward migration. TOI-1670 and the handful of similar systems support a diversity of formation pathways for warm Jupiters.